Following the agreement with Japan earlier this week, India has now concluded military logistics agreements with all quad countries, Australia, Japan and the United States, which significantly improves interoperability, as they also operate several common military platforms. These agreements are taken into account in the Indian Navy`s request to maintain its 24-hour, 24-hour presence in its main areas of interest, the Indian Ocean region (IOC) and, in the future, in the Indo-Pacific. The Indian Navy has maintained its presence through its concept of mission-based operations, involving more than a dozen large surface combatants along the entire length and breadth of the IOC. These operations have notably contributed to a significant improvement in the image of the Indian maritime domain Awareness (MDA), to facilitate the monitoring of vessels of interest and to be the First Responder in the case of a HADR scenario under development. After signing a basic Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) with the United States, India gained access to encrypted communication systems for transparent communication. In March 2019, the Navy and the U.S. Navy signed a loan agreement and installed two Pacific fleets provided CENTRIXS (Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange System) kits at Indian Navy Headquarters. The debate is about installing more systems at different locations and platforms, while officials did not want to give a precise figure. With logistics pacts, these will greatly improve interoperability.

It is also interesting to note the timing of the logistics agreements of India mentioned with regard to the geostrategic calculation that prevailed at the time. U.S. President Barack Obama announced his “reorientation to Asia” strategy in 2011. In September-October 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed the ambitious “Silk Road Economic Belt” and the “One Belt, One Road,” which was later renamed the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which preceded more than a decade of aggressive development of maritime infrastructure by China in most of the IOR`s coastal countries around India. These include the development of islands in the South China Sea, the continued voyages of Chinese warships in the Indian Ocean and the acquisition of a military base in Djibouti. China`s growing economic and military strength therefore required an effective counterweight. It can be inferred that the four logistics agreements signed by India after 2016 were the first LEMOA with the United States. In June, India and Australia signed Mutual Logistics Assistance (MLSA), strengthened their partnership for a comprehensive strategic partnership and also announced a joint declaration on a common vision of maritime cooperation in the Indo-Pacific area. The logistics pact with Japan, reciprocal procurement and services between the armed forces, was signed earlier this week. India and Japan have already signed an implementation agreement for closer cooperation between the navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). This agreement is similar to the four other logistics agreements signed by India with partner countries, namely: logistics exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) with the United States (United States) in August 2016, implementation agreement on mutual coordination, logistics and services with Singapore in June 2018, agreement on the provision of mutual logistical support between the armed forces and France in March 2018 , and more recently the agreement extending logistical support to the other country`s navies with the Republic of Korea (ROK) in September 2019. Similar agreements will be signed with Japan, the United Kingdom and Australia.

For the network: the importance and impact of the agreement. Logistics agreements are administrative arrangements that help facilitate the recovery of fuel, rations, spare parts (if necessary) as well as berths and maintenance stations for warships, military aircraft and troops from other countries during routine port gatherings, exercises and training in other countries` countries. , as well as during humanitarian and disaster relief (HADR).

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